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Intest Res > Volume 10(4); 2012 > Article
Intestinal Research 2012;10(4):332-342.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5217/ir.2012.10.4.332    Published online October 31, 2012.
Central Nervous System and the Colonic Bioreactor: Analysis of Colonic Microbiota in Patients with Stroke Unravels Unknown Mechanisms of the Host Defense after Brain Injury
Alexander Swidsinski, Vera Loening-Baucke, Monika Krüger, Steffen Kirsch
Humboldt University, Charité Hospital, Campus Charité Mitte, Laboratory for Molecular Genetics, Polymicrobial Infections and Bacterial Biofilms and Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Abstract
Background/Aims
Stroke is accompanied by septic complications due to quickly changing polymicrobials of unclear origin. This study was aimed to find the source of stroke-associated-infections. Methods: We investigated the biostructure of the colonic microbiota in patients hospitalized in two stroke units using fluorescence in situ hybridization in order to find the source of stroke-associated-infections. Non-stroke subjects and animals were used as controls. Results: Typical for stroke was a leukocyte migration into the mucus between day 1-3, in numbers that are otherwise characteristic for active ulcerative colitis (CAI ≥6); subsequent abrupt "decontamination" of the main fermentative Roseburia, Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii groups and disappearance of leukocytes in the stool; arrest of bacterial fermentation between day 3 to 7 in extents exceeding the effects of any presently know antibiotics. Then resetting in which Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile temporarily outnumber Bacteroides, Roseburia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and after that decline with normalization of these bacteria to initial values. Conclusions: The colon is a bioreactor containing many potential pathogens. The mucus barrier shields the host from bacteria. The events following stroke stress the pivotal role of the brain in maintaining this shield and indicate an existence of emergency brakes that temporary terminate the biofermentation. (Intest Res 2012;10:332-342)
Key Words: Microbiota, Stroke, Colitis, Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli
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