Intest Res 2018; 16(3): 327-337  https://doi.org/10.5217/ir.2018.16.3.327
Genetic and epigenetic alterations of colorectal cancer
Sung Noh Hong
Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Sung Noh Hong, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Korea. Tel: +82-2-3410-3409, Fax: +82-2-3410-6983, E-mail: gisnhong@gmail.com
Received: April 18, 2018; Revised: July 2, 2018; Accepted: July 3, 2018; Published online: July 30, 2018.
© Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from multi-step carcinogenesis due to genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications of human genome. Genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications were originally established as 2 independent mechanisms contributing to colorectal carcinogenesis. However, recent evidences demonstrate that there are interactions between these 2 mechanisms. Genetic mutations enable disruption of epigenetic controls while epigenetic modifications can initiate genomic instability and carcinogenesis. This review summarized genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications in colorectal carcinogenesis and molecular classification of CRC subtype based on genetic or epigenetic biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. Molecular subtypes of CRC will permit the implementation of precision medicine with better outcome of management for CRC.
Keywords: Colorectal neoplasms; Mutation; Epigenesis, genetic


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