Intest Res  
Why is it so difficult to evaluate faecal microbiota transplantation as a treatment for ulcerative colitis?
Natalie Grace Fairhurst1, Simon P. L. Travis2
1St Catherine’s College, University of Oxford, Oxford, 2Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Experimental Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
Correspondence to: Natalie Grace Fairhurst, St Catherine’s College, University of Oxford, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UJ, UK.
Tel: +44-7502232260, Fax: +44-01865 307651, E-mail: natalie.fairhurst@stcatz.ox.ac.uk
Received: August 20, 2017; Revised: September 6, 2017; Accepted: September 6, 2017; Published online: February 1, 2018.
© Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases. All rights reserved.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has recently re-emerged as a viable therapeutic option for colonic disorders. Its efficacy has been proved in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection which has encouraged research into the use of FMT for other disorders involving gut dysbiosis, such as ulcerative colitis (UC), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by relapsing and remitting colonic inflammation. Although the FMT protocol for C. difficile treatment is well established, there are numerous additional factors to consider when applying FMT to treat inflammatory diseases. Various studies have attempted to address these factors but technical inconsistency between reports has resulted in a failure to achieve clinically significant findings. Case reports of FMT in UC have shown favorable outcomes yet demonstrating these effects on a larger scale has proved difficult. The following review aims to explore these issues and to analyze why they may be hindering the progression of FMT therapy in UC.
Keywords: Colitis, ulcerative; Fecal microbiota transplantation


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